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Taiwan International Workers Association
台 灣 國 際 勞 工 協 會



移工十問

Q1:為什麼要稱呼「外勞」為「移工」?
A:國際上一般都稱「Migrant Work」,直譯為「移住勞工」,簡稱移工,但如果是稱「外勞」就是預設了內、外的差異,無異是把這些人當成外人,是一種本位主義的心態,從語言上開始排斥移工,對這群從外國來到台灣工作的工人而言,並不是很尊重。

Q2:目前台灣開放哪些國家的移工(藍領外勞)可以合法來台工作?有多少人?
A:有泰國(10萬2千餘人)、菲律賓(9萬1千餘人)、越南(8萬4千餘人)、印尼(2萬3千餘人),以及數量較少的馬來西亞、蒙古,合計一共約有30萬人。

Q3:移工來台主要從事哪些工作?
A:<就業服務法>中規定了可以引進移工的項目如下:重大公共工程建設(如高速鐵路、高雄捷運)、製造業重要投資案(如台塑麥寮六輕)、家庭幫傭、監護工(也就是在家庭或社福機構內照顧如植物人、殘障者的看護)、船員;以上指的是「藍領外勞」,「白領老外」則另有規定。

Q4:移工來台工作要付多少仲介費?可以工作多久?他們在台灣的月薪多少?
A:事實上目前各家仲介業者向移工收取高額的仲介費是最為人所詬病的,移工要來台灣工作之前,通常要先貸款才能支付二十幾萬(不同國家有不同的金額,但相去不遠)的仲介費給當地與台灣的仲介業者;而<就業服務法>中規定,「藍領外勞」(不包括白領老外)一次最久只能在台灣停留3年,3年過後就必須打包離境;如果移工在台灣的3年期間沒有不良犯行,身體檢查也都合格,那麼可以出境之後再申請來台灣工作,但是就必須再付一次仲介費,所以一位移工最長只能停留六年。<勞基法>定的最低薪資是每月1萬5千8百40元,而絕大部份的僱主會以這個價錢作為移工的月薪(加班費另計)。因此許多移工來台工作的前兩年所得到的薪資其實都用於還債,到第三年才真正開始賺錢。

Q5:是否所有來台工作的移工皆適用<勞基法>?
A:沒有。只有在營造業與製造業(也就是工廠或工地)工作的移工才受<勞基法>的保障,而監護工與幫傭等家庭類勞工(全台約有12萬人,將近40%)則被排除在外,舉凡工作時間、勞動條件以及勞、僱雙方的權利義務都沒有任何法規可以規範,因此這對移工甚至是僱主的權益來說,非常沒有保障。

Q6:為何要訂定<家事服務法>,或是讓家庭類勞工適用<勞基法>?
A:對家庭類勞工而言,目前充其量只有一紙僱主與移工私定的勞動契約,但並非所有的僱主都會遵守勞動契約,這就常常造成家庭類勞工被僱主指派衛其他家庭、其他人提供勞務的情況發生,使得工作時間一天長達十幾個小時的情況多所聽聞,一個人被當兩個人來用,這對移工來說非常辛苦,也不合理。而移工隻身在台灣工作,如果不幸碰到惡劣的僱主,<勞基法>卻無法適時保障移工的工作權益,即便聘請律師協助訴訟,但是依法移工頂多只能留在台灣3年,訴訟過程曠日費時,因此也非長遠之計;況且,換個角度想,如果移工在台灣工作期間如果發生職業災害、或是逃跑,在沒有法律的保障之下,僱主也會蒙受損失。基於這樣的理由,要求將家庭類勞工(以及與僱主的僱傭關係)納入<勞基法>,或是另外再訂定<家事服務法>,以保障這一類勞工、僱主的權益乃是勢在必行。

Q7:今年高雄捷運移工宿舍發生了外勞「暴動」(其實是抗暴)事件,他們被迫在宿舍中使用代幣、被管理人員毆打、無故被扣薪水,連生活環境都很擁擠、雜亂,為什麼他們不願意換工作?
A:這些移工其實不是不想換工作、到比較好的地方工作,而是<就業服務法>規定移工不可以按照自己的喜好自由轉換僱主,否則他們老早就換了。只有雇主才有權利決定要不要讓移工換到另一個雇主。而且雇主還有權利將移工遣送回國(不需要任何理由),想想,如果一個來台灣不到3年的移工連付給仲介的20萬都還沒賺回來就要被遣送,那麼他不就只能選擇乖乖聽僱主的話、安分點,先把債還完再說(如果他還能做到那個時候的話),再怎麼樣也不願意提前和僱主解約,負債離開台灣;再不然,還有一個最沒保障、最沒有選擇的選擇:逃跑,冒著被警察查緝的風險,逃到別的地方非法打工,因為被遣返是負債,逃跑也是負債,至少逃跑還不會過著被當成奴隸般的生活。就是因為不能自由轉換僱主,才會有「逃跑外勞」的事情發生,就是因為不能轉換僱主,才會讓惡劣的僱主如奴隸般的奴役移工,就是因為不能自由轉換僱主,很多移工只好每天住在髒亂的環境、被迫日夜加班而不敢反抗;如果移工可以自由轉換僱主,我們可以節省警察查緝「逃跑外勞」的人力,上面提到的情況幾乎都可以避免了。

Q8:仲介業者如何透過仲介移工而從中獲取暴利?為何要廢除仲介制度,強制國對國仲介?
A:仲介除了可以向每名移工收取20萬元不等的仲介費以外,移工來台灣工作依法必需支付第一年每月1千8百元、第二年每月1千7百元、第三年每月1千5百元的服務費。ㄧ些不肖的仲介業者雖然是向移工收取服務費,可是服務最勤快的對象卻是僱主,而非付錢的移工。如果移工「不聽話」,不肖的仲介會很樂意建議僱主將移工遣送,因為這樣他們又可以透過仲介另一個移工而獲得20萬元的仲介費。這對僱主其實沒有太大的損失,反而可能可以找到更「好用」的移工;最不利的就是移工了,因為這意味著移工只能任由仲介擺佈。因此如果要讓移工安心地在台灣工作,不被仲介剝削、予取予求,惟有廢除仲介制度,讓國家直接介入引進勞工的事務,才能夠阻斷這個被各方勢力覬覦的仲介大餅。

Q9:為何要修改移工最長六年的居留年限?
A:先回答前面的問題。在現行的制度之下,移工可以在工作三年之後,先出境再入境,申請第二次的三年工作機會(請參考Q4),這樣只是讓仲介再收一次仲介費,加重移工的負擔,如果能取消六年年限,就能減低債務壓力、增加移工的收入;對僱主而言,如果一位移工每工作三年就必須離開一個已經熟悉的工作環境,意味著雇主在三年之後要重新聘請另一位移工來代替前一位移工的工作,在這裡僱主就必須負擔所有的教育訓練、職前養成的費用,所以取消六年年限對僱主也是有利的。有些移工會在合約屆滿之前逃跑,爭取更長的工作機會,如果取消六年年限,同樣也不會有逃跑的問題發生。


Q10為什麼要幫助移工爭取在台灣的工作權益?移工在台灣不正是剝奪台灣勞工的就業機會嗎?
A:僱主最喜歡雇用什麼樣的勞工?不就是聽話、任勞任怨、加班不會抱怨,最好薪水又低的工人嗎?如果移工在台灣的工作處境越不改善,越容易被僱主強迫勞動、越沒有人權,僱主不是越喜歡僱用移工嗎?台灣工人不就越沒有工作機會嗎?如果有一天移工的薪水、福利都跟本地工人一樣的話,還會有人願意僱用移工嗎?本地工人還怕工作被移工搶走嗎?

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