作者:吳永毅

摘要
由於外籍幫傭及監護工的勞動和休息時間均在雇主的家庭空間內進行,幾乎沒有個人隱私和自由,迫使此類外勞只能在假期於優勢異文化(即「台灣人」)的公共空間聚會或進行隱私活動,使其族群和階級的特殊性易受攻擊。具工運視野的北市勞工局於2002 年開辦「外勞文化中心」,試圖從實質空間的資源重分配,突破台灣人的空間獨佔權力;承包該案的「台灣國際勞工協會(TIWA)」將中心取名為HOME (House of the Migrants’ Empowerment),希望成為凝聚外勞主體認同的「政治的家」;實際運作後又意外成為外勞「生活的家」──最頻繁的自發性活動是下廚、聚餐和補眠。2004 年勞工局異主,學者出身的新局長以「為達資源有效運用,避免設備於非假日閒置」為由將中心關閉。首先,本個案說明了家務勞動(即再生產勞動)商品化/私有化,所衍生的多層次空間性社會排斥,攪亂了一般空間理論的「私密-公共」分析光譜。第二,它說明了中產階級的時空慣習如何主導了主流空間論述,並轉化成實質的社會排斥政策;第三,關閉中心的理由﹐又說明了空間論述如何生產著排斥性的空間秩序。

關鍵詞:外勞、空間性社會排斥、家務勞動、公共與私密區分、再生產活動、仕紳化/高級化。

TITLE:
A Preliminary Inquiry on Theories of Spatial Social Exclusion on Migrant
Workers: A Case Study of the Shut-down of the HOME in Taipei City.

Abstract:
This is a case study of the shut-down of the HOME (House of the Migrants’ Empowerment), a cultural and service center for migrant workers in Taipei from March, 2002 to April, 2004. The HOME was sub-contracted to the TIWA (Taiwan International Workers’ Association) by Taipei Labor Bureau (TLB).

Using this case as an example of the spatial discrimination against the migrant workers in Taiwan, I try to established some primary arguments that explains the practice of such spatial social exclusion in a micro-private-household level. The phenomenon of the mass
importation of migrant workers into private families for substitute of Taiwanese household labor since early 90s, I called it ‘the domesticating of commodification of household labor’. This process subverted our traditional private-public space distinction, gender and class positions, and creates new racial discrimination.

For the borderline between sold-time and free-time (i.e. the work-rest distiction) of migrant domestic helpers and care-takers are too blurred, so that most of their reproductive activities temporally are squeezed into holidays and spatially are forced to move to public places. They conduct lots of private activities, like eating, sleeping, chatting, and acts of intimacy in public spaces like streets, parks, or train stations, which are tabooed for those activities. This peculiar condition makes migrant workers become double vulnerable, the exposing of private behaviors in public spaces re-enforced the discrimination against them in the household.

The HOME once existed as a ‘surrogate home’ which providedshelter to let migrants retained partial privacy in holidays. The TIWA based on the HOME, conducted organizing oriented cultural and political activities to assist migrants’ form their own community. The physical space of the HOME and the collective consciousness for community building had challenged the spatial discourse of ChunShan District.

However, the Director of TLB, Yan, Shang-Luan (嚴祥鸞), a well-known feminist labor research professor, did not appreciated the HOME, and decided to close it. Based on official documents of the TLB, and their officers’ justification rhetoric, I argue that one of the key elements in making of social exclusion against migrant workers, is a dominant Taiwanese middle-class temporal-spatial habitus, which is parallel to the real-estate interests and the gentrification process of Taipei City.

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外勞所受空間性社會排斥的理論初探──北市外勞文化中心 (HOME) 關閉的個案分析

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